Linux

         


, - , : " ?" , ls. ls (LiSt) ( ). ,

/home/larry# ls

Mail

letters

papers

/home/larry#

, Larry " " : Mail, letters papers. , : ? (. : UNIX "") -F ls, .

/home/larry# ls -F

Mail/

letters/

papers/

/home/larry#

/ , ().

ls -F ( "-F" ) ``*'' . , . , ls -F, , "" , .. .

, UNIX . ``-'', ls -F. -F ls, .

ls , .

/home/larry# ls -F papers

english-lit

history-final

masters-thesis

notes/

/home/larry#

, , , /etc/.

/home/larry# ls /etc

Images ftpusers lpc rc.new shells

adm getty magic rc0.d startcons

bcheckrc gettydefs motd rc1.d swapoff

brc group mount rc2.d swapon


brc~ inet mtab rc3.d syslog.conf

csh.cshrc init mtools rc4.d syslog.pid

csh.login init.d pac rc5.d syslogd.reload

default initrunlvl passwd rmt termcap

disktab inittab printcap rpc umount

fdprm inittab.old profile rpcinfo update

fstab issue psdatabase securetty utmp

ftpaccess lilo rc services wtmp

/home/larry#

( MS- DOS , 8 . ).

(. : , UNIX " (root)") , ``cd ..'', (/usr/bin ).

/home/larry# cd ..

/home# cd ..

/# cd usr

/usr# cd bin

/usr/bin#

, , , , cd /usr/bin.

, ls cd. ``Permission denied''( ). UNIX, . 3.9.

3.3.3










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